Slavery: Ancient and Modern


A new 2013 Global Slavery Index has been published by the Walk Free Foundation, in which we read that Mauritania tops the list of countries where slavery is an issue, when ranked in proportion to population size. Many media outlets were quick to transform this into a headline, which has already blazed its trail through social networks such as Facebook and Twitter.

There are some important observations to consider when reading these headlines, which I want to highlight:

  • The index uses a broad definition of “modern slavery” which includes child marriage and human trafficking, including illegal immigration. In the case of Mauritania, what exists there, and is still being witnessed today, is descendant slavery, as found in several countries in the index, and which is anything BUT modern. The number of Mauritanian citizens being trafficked is so tiny it defies measurement, and while child marriage is legal under Sharia law, marriage itself is so popular that once again, the numbers are going to be incredibly difficult to determine with any measure of accuracy. Those cases of child marriage we do hear of are mostly in more remote, rural areas with scant statistical records.
  • The population of Mauritania has not been reported using an official census since 2000, and even then, the numbers were deliberately under-reported, as noted by the World Bank and the UN, the secondary sources used by this new index. All¬†numbers for population¬†for the past 13 years¬†have been estimated and extrapolated from other data sources. These sources are studies which will also determine the scope of aid programs, a major source of income for successive, corrupt, governments of Mauritania. Therefore we must assume the numbers reported for those studies is impacted by the opportunistic greed of the ruling administration.
  • The percentage arrived at by the index is 4%. This is in stark contrast to the figure of 10% to 20% usually reported by NGOs and human rights organisations. No explanation is offered for this apparent discrepancy. Clearly, the government, which remains sternly in denial of the continued existence or practice of slavery in Mauritania, will consider this a major PR coup in its favour.
  • Hillary Clinton has noted that the new index is “not perfect” and therefore, we should expect to see changes to it as it develops over time.
Freed into homelessness and unemployment, former slaves in Mauritania build makeshift villages from found materials. But they are often made homeless again, their shanty-towns bulldozed in land-grabs, as happened in Leimghetty, outside the capital, Nouakchott, in May 2013

Freed into homelessness and unemployment, former slaves in Mauritania build makeshift villages from found materials. But they are often made homeless again, their shanty-towns bulldozed under order of state officials, as happened in Leimghetty, outside the capital, Nouakchott, in May 2013

We must take the issue of slavery seriously, because it is widespread and damaging and goes against everything decent human beings hold dear. But we don’t need glossy reports or “world leaders” (see video below) moralising about the subject as much as we need to see real concrete plans about how this scourge is going to be eradicated, and sensible actions which offer practical help for the victims to regain a dignified independence as well as their liberty.


At the moment, it looks like the main concern about slavery as far as many states are concerned, is that the proceeds are part of the “grey economy,” and therefore those doing the enslaving are also avoiding paying tax. It would seem that governments are more comfortable with the notion of fostering the sprawling mass of aid and development organisations, and collecting income tax from their often very highly-paid executives, while the rest of the agencies’ funds are able to¬†legitimately avoid standard company tax because they are registered charities.

With new, harsher penalties being announced by the UK for anyone found guilty of trafficking, there is a great deal of justifiable public concern for the fate of the victims in all this, which is not clear from the statements being issued. These concerns are echoed in every country where trafficking or slavery is a problem. In Mauritania, for example, “international pressure” has led to a succession of rules, laws and proclamations from the government of the time, paying lip-service to the exhortations of donor organisations and countries willing to invest or otherwise bring revenue into the state coffers, with humanitarian strings attached. Yet each time the regime has banned or outlawed the practice of slavery, it has led to groups of people being “freed” by their former owners out of panic and fear, rather than concern. This has created a group of socially isolated former slaves, cast out of a bad but familiar situation, into an even more extreme state of insecurity, with no food, shelter, or work, and lacking even a basic education.

How extreme? Bad enough that some of them were forced to seek shelter in the refugee camp built to house those displaced from the conflict in neighbouring Mali. What happened when they were supposedly discovered? The UNHCR refused to feed them, and stopped issuing food rations to the entire camp, provoking a riot during which the food stores were broken into and rations seized by angry, humiliated, hungry, people with nowhere else to go and no other choices. That camp has been open since January 2012, and those Mauritanians were there almost from the start, but they were initially useful in boosting numbers for fund-raising appeals and supplying dramatic subtext to help justify the deployment of French and other military forces in Mali. Now, they’re surplus to requirements. Ironically, it is against the law to be homeless in Mauritania, land of the nomad. Expelling these Mauritanians from the refugee camp will subject them to risk of arrest and possible imprisonment, and certainly to harassment.

Such groups are likely to be found in every country where slavery is a current issue, and several where it has supposedly been eliminated, although their situations will vary. They all need support, and it should be delivered with as much publicity and enthusiasm as the speeches and statements and statistics, if not more.


Mauritania’s World Bank Bubble


Shameful waste! “Consultancy Project to recruit a Technical Assistant” the grand sum of $250,000 was apparently¬†awarded in 2003 to¬†a contractor, GEOIDD in Tunisia, for this basic recruitment service. But then follow the link¬†from that page, and the project name is listed as Rajasthan, India. Are they just insanely sloppy or cooking the books?

Now it's Mauritania

Now it’s Mauritania

and now it's Rajasthan

and now it’s Rajasthan

Here is¬†another¬†– a “study” worth $246,000 awarded to a company “TANSITEC” in Switzerland, which also¬†links¬†to Rajasthan, not Mauritania.

Almost half a million dollars on two items, and what is there to show for it?

Even a cursory examination of the “consultancy” and “study” and “audit” costs, over the life of this 11 year development programme, will show money being squandered on costly but nonsensical projects like the ones above, with little or no immediately apparent or tangible benefits. This programme began before General Aziz staged his military coup in 2008, continuing after he came to power, and it indicates widespread mismanagement and/or corruption on an international scale.

Just one example of a questionable Mauritanian infrastructure and development project was for urban development in Atar, where Mauritanian company Macoba TP (part of the AZIZI group) and¬†Spanish construction company Franjuan were appointed to work with local contractors. Seven local firms were reportedly involved, and they engaged 100 labourers – including some from Mali – to install 46,600 square meters of paving covering 4km of drainage pipes and gutters. The news item¬†posted 7 October 2011 about this project on has “vanished” (still visible via the Internet Archive¬†here). Mention of labour from Mali is a big clue for the story disappearing¬†– this project was supposed to create work for Mauritanians, not Malians.

Don't mention the workers from Mali

Don’t mention the workers from Mali

Also missing is the World Bank website page about the contract which went to Macoba-Franjuan (still visible on a Chinese site that published a copy, here). The decision to remove evidence of this project may indicate that World Bank prefers not to have anyone look too closely at the bid and tender process for standards compliance. We can be sure that China would be more than interested, since they bid on many construction projects in Mauritania.

Some of the images from the October news item are missing but you can see some photos on the Adrar info site here, from January 2012, when the mayor was chuffed with himself about how well the project was going, and here in August the same year, when several snags and unfinished areas were highlighted.

This paving project was part of a larger, long-term, Urban Development Programme with a total budget of almost US$100  million funded by various international organizations via the World Bank . The project closed 30 June 2012, and the details page and reports are available here in English. The stats, such as exist, are baffling. Atar is the regional capital of the state of Adrar and boasts a population of more than 24,000, who celebrated completion of the drainage project on 28 June 2012. This begs the question why there is such a small increase reported (8,305 Рfrom 17,000 in 2011 to 25,305 in 2012) in the number of people, in all urban capitals across the country, provided with improved drainage services.

Woman from the Leimghetty neighbourhood of Dar Naim near Nouakchott shows her legal title to build on the land where the state just destroyed her home and is now ignoring demands for re-housing or compensation

Woman from the Leimghetty neighbourhood of Dar Naim near Nouakchott shows her legal title to build on the land where the state just destroyed her home and is now ignoring demands for re-housing or compensation

My current theory is this: they don’t care about the numbers, or where the money seems to be going, or even whether some of the projects are imaginary, because the purpose of the entire shambolic scam is to line the pockets of corrupt officials whose companies, and those of their cronies, profit from contracts to undertake the various “improvements”. This buys the required mix of compliance and silence so that, once real estate prices have been boosted by roads, drainage, etc, even more financial shenanigans can take place, as the already wealthy endlessly shuffle their ill-gotten gains around.

I further assume this is the reason for evicting tens of thousands of the poorest people in Mauritania from their hovels. In a recent example, dozens of families in Leimghetty [ar] have been left homeless for over a month after the national guard sent in bulldozers to destroy their huts –¬†over their heads in some cases. All this happened even as the government was issuing advice to citizens to “stay indoors” during the hottest parts of the day, as temperatures soared to 50 degrees Celsius. The homeless families have been completely ignored by officials from the interior ministry, who are under orders to clear the land and to hell with the people, even the most vulnerable such as the elderly, infirm, and mothers with babies, who are slowly being grilled into oblivion under the scorching sun. Don’t think for one moment that the World Bank is not aware of this. They are aware and they do not care. In fact, they want these slums demolished, and they note that :

“The amount paid by low-income people to have access to land property rights is very low as compared to the existing land market value. Depending on local conditions, additional arrangements needs to be put in place to ensure that only targeted people are benefitting from such programs, and will keep this benefit.”

No doubt they are looking forward to a property price boom.

This Week in Corruption – Oxford University Press and World Bank education projects in Africa


Children in a classroom in Kenya. Two Oxford press units have been debarred for bribing government officials to win tenders and contracts for World Bank-financed education projects in East Africa. Photo by: Curt Carnemark / World Bank / CC BY-NC

Oxford University Press has acknowledged the ‚Äúmisconduct‚ÄĚ of its two subsidiaries that bribed government officials to win tenders and contracts to supply text books to two¬†World Bank-financed education projects in East Africa, according to a¬†press release.

World Bank debarred Oxford University Press East Africa Ltd. and Oxford University Press Tanzania Tuesday (July 3) following OUP’s acknowledgment. This means both units will not be eligible for World Bank-financed projects for three years. They are also in danger of being blacklisted by other multilateral development banks under a 2010 cross-debarment agreement.

The publishing company, meanwhile, has decided to contribute 2 million pounds ($3.13 million) for teacher training and other education-related programs in sub-Saharan Africa, apart from agreeing to pay the World Bank $500,000 for its subsidiaries’ misdeeds.

The two subsidiaries operate in Kenya, Burundi, Malawi, Rwanda, Sudan and Uganda, Reuters reports. Oxford Publishing Ltd., OUP’s publishing arm, has also agreed to pay the United Kingdom’s Serious Fraud Office 1.9 million pounds in relation to the case.

Apart from the payments, OUP will take ‚Äúdisciplinary action‚ÄĚ against those involved, according to a¬†press release.

This is not the first time a publishing company has been subjected to debarment by the World Bank. In 2010, the bank also debarred Macmillan Ltd. after the U.K. publishing group admitted to engaging in bribery in an education project funded through the Sudan Multidonor Trust Fund. The World Bank manages the trust fund.

Read more:


Unbalanced: World Bank #Mauritania Profile


The World Bank has enjoyed a long¬†relationship¬†with Mauritania. It must be aware then, that French is far more widely used there than English. Unfortunately, the French¬†language¬†version of the World Bank country Profile on Mauritania has not been updated since April 2010. this is most unfortunate, as there is a marked change in the level of¬†indebtedness¬†that I am sure groups such as the newly-minted “D√©gagistes” would find fascinating:

Here is the graph from the “strategy” tab of the¬†English version:

This was updated in October 2011, just in time to avoid any unpleasant ramifications of having to admit to dealing with an illegal regime whose electoral mandate expired the following month.

And here is the graph from same section of the outdated French version:

Permettez moi:

Le portefeuille de la Banque mondiale en Mauritanie comprend 17 projets pour un montant global d’environ 385,3 millions de dollars
En Avril 2011, le portefeuille de la Banque mondiale comprenait 11 projets de pays, dont trois régionaux, un FEM et deux nouvelles opérations, ce qui représente une total de US $ 357,7 millions. Ce montant inclut US $ 66,88 millions pour les projets régionaux et 116 M $ US non décaissés.

A Wedge of New Egypt Pie – with Martyr Sauce

Deutsch: Hauptverwaltung des Internationalen W...

IMF HQ - Image via Wikipedia

According to the New York times, Egypt‚Äôs foreign currency reserves¬†have fallen from a peak of $36 billion to about $10 billion¬†and could run out entirely by March. Promised loans and funding from the US, Europe, the IMF and Arab neighbors have not materialized, according to the NYT and some reports from Egypt. We are also told they originally rejected an IMF loan but are now seeking to revive it. The IMF will “consider” and a decision will be ready in March – conveniently close to crunch time for Egypt. If no one in Egypt’s leadership can see they are being played over this I will assume they are blinded by greed.

Meanwhile, no one is including mention of the $1 billion loan SCAF was able to conjur up at the end of last year. Or the running cost of Egypt’s several security forces, for that matter. At the time, I asked how much more they had tucked away. Speaking of stashed cash, where are Mubarak’s assets? The endless delays to his trial are also dragging Egypt nearer to the financial abyss. What about the money and property that was tied up in Spain, or the funds embezzled by Mubarak’s crew, cronies and family all these years – where is that small fortune hiding? While we’re at it, didn’t Suzan Mubarak buy her way out of jail by promising to return a wedge of illicit wealth? Is Egypt still supplying subsidized gas to Israel through a deal with a US-owned operation? Why?

What’s really going on here is the international bully boys perfecting their game. For example, we have the US administration talking and meeting with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood (probably not short of cash itself) then we see Reuters with a quick follow-up upbeat MB story from¬†the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood‚Äôs economic committee, Ashraf Badr el-Din, suggesting that the Brotherhood and other main parties are moving toward consensus on managing the economy. Take your time, there are only 84 million lives and the stability of the entire region at stake. It’s too much to hope that someone have the guts to stand up and talk honestly about the need to make massive sacrifices over a medium to long term. As long as that is not happening anywhere else, despite the desperate, blindingly obvious¬†need, it sure isn’t going to happen under SCAF’s beady eye.

We will hear lots in the next 6 to 8 weeks about the youth, the unemployment, and the need to make “reforms” (which means cutting subsidies). We won’t hear that this is backed by a huge¬†international¬†cartel of¬†financiers¬†like the IMF or World Bank and companies like Coca Cola etc promising foreign investment for infrastructure development, business growth and employment. In exchange for what? A nice big slice of New Egypt Pie. What a shame the gravy is made from the blood of martyrs.